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  1. #1
    Registered User
    Join Date
    Jul 2003
    Posts
    20

    How can I detect the ENTER character?

    Hi all

    I got a problem when I try to send a message from mobile as a
    part of URL such as http://abc.com?msg=xxxx

    The error is occured when an "ENTER" character is appeared in the message. So, I try to capture and replace it with some other
    string before sending but I don't know what is the 'ENTER' character code is. Anyone can help me please?

    Voravit H.

  2. #2
    Regular Contributor
    Join Date
    Apr 2003
    Location
    Slovakia/Bratislava
    Posts
    67
    You can take URLEncoder.encode() method from J2SE[Use is subject to license terms ;-)]

    Tom

    /*
    * @(#)URLEncoder.java 1.26 02/04/15
    *
    * Copyright 2002 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All rights reserved.
    * SUN PROPRIETARY/CONFIDENTIAL. Use is subject to license terms.
    */

    package java.net;

    import java.io.ByteArrayOutputStream;
    import java.io.BufferedWriter;
    import java.io.OutputStreamWriter;
    import java.io.IOException;
    import java.io.UnsupportedEncodingException;
    import java.util.BitSet;
    import java.security.AccessController;
    import java.security.PrivilegedAction;
    import sun.security.action.GetBooleanAction;
    import sun.security.action.GetPropertyAction;

    /**
    * Utility class for HTML form encoding. This class contains static methods
    * for converting a String to the <CODE>application/x-www-form-urlencoded</CODE> MIME
    * format. For more information about HTML form encoding, consult the HTML
    * <A HREF="http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/">specification</A>.
    *
    * <p>
    * When encoding a String, the following rules apply:
    *
    * <p>
    * <ul>
    * <li>The alphanumeric characters &quot;<code>a</code>&quot; through
    * &quot;<code>z</code>&quot;, &quot;<code>A</code>&quot; through
    * &quot;<code>Z</code>&quot; and &quot;<code>0</code>&quot;
    * through &quot;<code>9</code>&quot; remain the same.
    * <li>The special characters &quot;<code>.</code>&quot;,
    * &quot;<code>-</code>&quot;, &quot;<code>*</code>&quot;, and
    * &quot;<code>_</code>&quot; remain the same.
    * <li>The space character &quot;<code>&nbsp;</code>&quot; is
    * converted into a plus sign &quot;<code>+</code>&quot;.
    * <li>All other characters are unsafe and are first converted into
    * one or more bytes using some encoding scheme. Then each byte is
    * represented by the 3-character string
    * &quot;<code>%<i>xy</i></code>&quot;, where <i>xy</i> is the
    * two-digit hexadecimal representation of the byte.
    * The recommended encoding scheme to use is UTF-8. However,
    * for compatibility reasons, if an encoding is not specified,
    * then the default encoding of the platform is used.
    * </ul>
    *
    * <p>
    * For example using UTF-8 as the encoding scheme the string &quot;The
    * string &#252;@foo-bar&quot; would get converted to
    * &quot;The+string+%C3%BC%40foo-bar&quot; because in UTF-8 the character
    * &#252; is encoded as two bytes C3 (hex) and BC (hex), and the
    * character @ is encoded as one byte 40 (hex).
    *
    * @author Herb Jellinek
    * @version 1.26, 04/15/02
    * @since JDK1.0
    */
    public class URLEncoder {
    static BitSet dontNeedEncoding;
    static final int caseDiff = ('a' - 'A');
    static String dfltEncName = null;

    static {

    /* The list of characters that are not encoded has been
    * determined as follows:
    *
    * RFC 2396 states:
    * -----
    * Data characters that are allowed in a URI but do not have a
    * reserved purpose are called unreserved. These include upper
    * and lower case letters, decimal digits, and a limited set of
    * punctuation marks and symbols.
    *
    * unreserved = alphanum | mark
    *
    * mark = "-" | "_" | "." | "!" | "~" | "*" | "'" | "(" | ")"
    *
    * Unreserved characters can be escaped without changing the
    * semantics of the URI, but this should not be done unless the
    * URI is being used in a context that does not allow the
    * unescaped character to appear.
    * -----
    *
    * It appears that both Netscape and Internet Explorer escape
    * all special characters from this list with the exception
    * of "-", "_", ".", "*". While it is not clear why they are
    * escaping the other characters, perhaps it is safest to
    * assume that there might be contexts in which the others
    * are unsafe if not escaped. Therefore, we will use the same
    * list. It is also noteworthy that this is consistent with
    * O'Reilly's "HTML: The Definitive Guide" (page 164).
    *
    * As a last note, Intenet Explorer does not encode the "@"
    * character which is clearly not unreserved according to the
    * RFC. We are being consistent with the RFC in this matter,
    * as is Netscape.
    *
    */

    dontNeedEncoding = new BitSet(256);
    int i;
    for (i = 'a'; i <= 'z'; i++) {
    dontNeedEncoding.set(i);
    }
    for (i = 'A'; i <= 'Z'; i++) {
    dontNeedEncoding.set(i);
    }
    for (i = '0'; i <= '9'; i++) {
    dontNeedEncoding.set(i);
    }
    dontNeedEncoding.set(' '); /* encoding a space to a + is done
    * in the encode() method */
    dontNeedEncoding.set('-');
    dontNeedEncoding.set('_');
    dontNeedEncoding.set('.');
    dontNeedEncoding.set('*');

    dfltEncName = (String)AccessController.doPrivileged (
    new GetPropertyAction("file.encoding")
    );
    }

    /**
    * You can't call the constructor.
    */
    private URLEncoder() { }

    /**
    * Translates a string into <code>x-www-form-urlencoded</code>
    * format. This method uses the platform's default encoding
    * as the encoding scheme to obtain the bytes for unsafe characters.
    *
    * @param s <code>String</code> to be translated.
    * @deprecated The resulting string may vary depending on the platform's
    * default encoding. Instead, use the encode(String,String)
    * method to specify the encoding.
    * @return the translated <code>String</code>.
    */
    public static String encode(String s) {

    String str = null;

    try {
    str = encode(s, dfltEncName);
    } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e) {
    // The system should always have the platform default
    }

    return str;
    }

    /**
    * Translates a string into <code>application/x-www-form-urlencoded</code>
    * format using a specific encoding scheme. This method uses the
    * supplied encoding scheme to obtain the bytes for unsafe
    * characters.
    * <p>
    * <em><strong>Note:</strong> The <a href=
    * "http://www.w3.org/TR/html40/appendix/notes.html#non-ascii-chars">
    * World Wide Web Consortium Recommendation</a> states that
    * UTF-8 should be used. Not doing so may introduce
    * incompatibilites.</em>
    *
    * @param s <code>String</code> to be translated.
    * @param enc The name of a supported
    * <a href="../lang/package-summary.html#charenc">character
    * encoding</a>.
    * @return the translated <code>String</code>.
    * @exception UnsupportedEncodingException
    * If the named encoding is not supported
    * @see URLDecoder#decode(java.lang.String, java.lang.String)
    * @since 1.4
    */
    public static String encode(String s, String enc)
    throws UnsupportedEncodingException {

    boolean needToChange = false;
    boolean wroteUnencodedChar = false;
    int maxBytesPerChar = 10; // rather arbitrary limit, but safe for now
    StringBuffer out = new StringBuffer(s.length());
    ByteArrayOutputStream buf = new ByteArrayOutputStream(maxBytesPerChar);

    BufferedWriter writer =
    new BufferedWriter(new OutputStreamWriter(buf, enc));

    for (int i = 0; i < s.length(); i++) {
    int c = (int) s.charAt(i);
    //System.out.println("Examining character: " + c);
    if (dontNeedEncoding.get(c)) {
    if (c == ' ') {
    c = '+';
    needToChange = true;
    }
    //System.out.println("Storing: " + c);
    out.append((char)c);
    wroteUnencodedChar = true;
    } else {
    // convert to external encoding before hex conversion
    try {
    if (wroteUnencodedChar) { // Fix for 4407610
    writer = new BufferedWriter(new OutputStreamWriter(buf, enc));
    wroteUnencodedChar = false;
    }
    writer.write(c);
    /*
    * If this character represents the start of a Unicode
    * surrogate pair, then pass in two characters. It's not
    * clear what should be done if a bytes reserved in the
    * surrogate pairs range occurs outside of a legal
    * surrogate pair. For now, just treat it as if it were
    * any other character.
    */
    if (c >= 0xD800 && c <= 0xDBFF) {
    /*
    System.out.println(Integer.toHexString(c)
    + " is high surrogate");
    */
    if ( (i+1) < s.length()) {
    int d = (int) s.charAt(i+1);
    /*
    System.out.println("\tExamining "
    + Integer.toHexString(d));
    */
    if (d >= 0xDC00 && d <= 0xDFFF) {
    /*
    System.out.println("\t"
    + Integer.toHexString(d)
    + " is low surrogate");
    */
    writer.write(d);
    i++;
    }
    }
    }
    writer.flush();
    } catch(IOException e) {
    buf.reset();
    continue;
    }
    byte[] ba = buf.toByteArray();
    for (int j = 0; j < ba.length; j++) {
    out.append('%');
    char ch = Character.forDigit((ba[j] >> 4) & 0xF, 16);
    // converting to use uppercase letter as part of
    // the hex value if ch is a letter.
    if (Character.isLetter(ch)) {
    ch -= caseDiff;
    }
    out.append(ch);
    ch = Character.forDigit(ba[j] & 0xF, 16);
    if (Character.isLetter(ch)) {
    ch -= caseDiff;
    }
    out.append(ch);
    }
    buf.reset();
    needToChange = true;
    }
    }

    return (needToChange? out.toString() : s);
    }
    }

  3. #3
    Registered User
    Join Date
    Mar 2003
    Posts
    10
    Dear TomXXX
    I've try that however I cannot find the code for "ENTER".
    Could you tell me the character code for "ENTER"?

  4. #4
    Regular Contributor
    Join Date
    Apr 2003
    Location
    Slovakia/Bratislava
    Posts
    67
    %0a

  5. #5
    Registered User
    Join Date
    Jul 2003
    Posts
    20
    Dear all again

    Before I can encode the new line character to be "%0a", I have to know the "new line" code for "Nokia" phone at first don't I?
    What is the "new line" or the "ENTER" character code for "Nokia" phone?

    Thanks you all

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