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Flash Memory

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Created: kiran10182 (11 May 2007)
Last edited: hamishwillee (23 Jul 2012)

Flash memory

Symbian phones use Flash memory as their principal store of system code and user data. Flash memory is a silicon-based non-volatile storage medium that can be programmed and erased electronically. Flash memory comes in two major types: NOR and NAND. The names refer to their fundamental silicon gate design. Symbian OS phones make best use of both types of Flash through the selection of file systems The built-in system code and applications appear to Symbian software as one large read-only drive, known as the Z: drive. The Z: drive is sometimes known as the ROM image. User data and installed applications reside on the internal, writable C: drive. A typical Symbian phone today will use between 32 and 64 MB of Flash for the code and user data – this is the total ROM budget. Symbian uses many techniques to minimize the code and data sizes within a phone, such as THUMB instruction set, prelinked XIP images, compressed executables, compressed data formats and coding standards that emphasize minimal code size.

NOR Flash

NOR flashes allow for unlimited writes to the same data block, to turn the ones into zeros. Flashes usually have a write buffer of around 32 to 64 bytes that allows a number of bytes to be written in parallel to increase speed. Erasing a NOR segment is slow, taking about half a second to one second. But erases can be suspended and later restarted. Completed writes and erases will update the status register within the Flash, and may generate an external interrupt. Without an interrupt, the CPU will need to use a high-speed timer to poll the Flash for completion.

NAND Flash

NAND Flash is treated as a block-based disk, rather than randomly addressable memory. Unlike NOR, it does not have any address lines, so cannot appear in the memory map. This means that code cannot execute directly from NAND and it has to be copied into RAM first. This results in the need for extra RAM in a NAND phone compared to a similar NOR device. NAND Flash writes are about 10 times faster than those on NOR Flash. A phone cannot boot directly from NAND. The process is more complex, requiring a set of boot loaders that build upon each other, finally resulting in a few megabytes of core Symbian OS image, the ROM, being loaded into RAM, where it will execute. NAND is also inherently less reliable than NOR. The lower price of NAND compared to NOR makes it attractive for mass-market phone projects, even after taking into account the extra RAM required.

This page was last modified on 23 July 2012, at 07:48.
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