Java ME Porting Guidelines
It is hardly the case that an application built for one mobile device will not be ported to other handsets.
Handsets vary significantly in various parameters like:
- screen size (for ex SE-S700i - 240X320, Nokia 7250i - 128X128),
- heap size
- maximum application size
Hence, there is a need to follow certain guidelines, which can help you in making your application (esp
games) porting friendly.
In this article, we would be discussing such points and give an introduction to Java Pre Processor.
J2ME Porting Guidelines
Here are some of the practical points, which if followed may help you in making your game porting friendly.
I. Using “Switch-Case”
Public static final int STATE_RUNNING = 1000;
Public static final int STATE_PAUSED = 2000;
Public static final int STATE_RESUME = 3000;
There’s nothing wrong in the above statement but it would be better if we use the smaller integer values like:
Public static final int STATE_RUNNING = 1;
Public static final int STATE_PAUSED = 2;
Public static final int STATE_RESUME = 3;
Following is the list of the restriction keywords applicable for methods starting from the slowest one in terms of performance:
So try to use the final and / or static methods wherever possible.
III. Arguments in the methods
Calling the methods and passing arguments in methods cause overheads, which finally affect the performance of your application. So try to minimize the number of methods in your application.
IV. Accessing the Arrays
Instead of accessing an array element a number of times, store that element in a local variable and use it.
V. Using the device specific API
Try to avoid device specific APIs as far as possible. But you do come across situations when it cannot be avoided; for example, to get the full screen display on a Nokia phone you need to extend your canvas class from FullScreen class.
VI. Separate Game Logic from View
It’s always advisable to write game logic in a separate class and views in separate classes. This way you would not need to change the game logic when the game is to be ported to other devices. In most cases, changing the graphics does the trick, which can easily be handled by view classes.
VII. Use of shift operators for multiplication and division
Using Bit shift operations is a faster way to do the multiplication (left shift) and division (right shift) by 2.
VIII. Garbage Collector
Avoid calling the garbage collector too often in your application as this result into serious
performance issue. Garbage collection process takes a lot of time and resources and may cause your application to hang. Its better to leave garbage collection to KVM and to write your application so that you free your objects (set them to NULL) soon as their utility is over.
IX. Instance Variables
Generally it’s a very good practice of keeping your variables private and writing the setters and getters for accessing them. But NOT in J2ME.
The methods generate byte code, which ultimately increases your application size. Apart from overhead of calling methods, many devices have very small application sizes, for ex in older Nokia Series 40 devices you have the application size limited to only 64 kb. Hence it’s advisable to use public variables if you can afford to do that.
X. Number of Classes
Try to minimize the number of classes in your application. More the number of classes, more overhead on the KVM and also more is the application size.
XI. Using “setClip”
There might be few areas in your game’s view that are static, that is they don’t change with time or actions. So we should paint only those areas which need to be refreshed not the whole screen. You can easily do that by using the setClip method, which clips the area that you want to be refreshed. Painting is very time costly process and the more efficiently you can use it, the faster your gamecan be.
XII. Object Creation
Try to minimize the creation / deletion of objects in your application. Creating objects is a memory consuming process. Also continuous creation & destroying of objects causes memory fragmentation that ultimately leaks memory that cannot be reused unless KVM (and hence device) is restarted (known devices with problems: Nokia 3650, 3660).
So it’s better to create the object pool and then use the objects from that pool.
Don’t use the packages in your class structure and put all your classes in the default package. This would reduce the processing needs and may also keep the application size slightly on lower side.
XIV. Avoid deep hierarchies in your class structure
Since in java, the object binding is done at run time, which is a slow process, it’s better not to use the deep hierarchies in your class structure.
Obfuscation is a technique that helps compress your application and make it secure against hacking at same time. It shortens your variables & method names, removes the repetitive code and compresses the graphics. Since the class files can be decompiled, decompiling obfuscated files is
not of much help as the code has been jumbled up so much that it will take a lot of time to know what exactly is written in the file. Until now, obfuscation is a one-way process.
XVI. Using appropriate data types
Since in the mobile devices, heap is a major factor so you must declare your variables with appropriate data types. For example when you know that the variable’s value will not exceed 128, define it as a byte rather than an int or short.