Python is a programming language used in both computers and mobile phones that was created by Guido van Rossum and released in 1991. Python is noticeably easier to learn than many other programming languages as it has been designed for both readability and to make things easier for the programmer. There is a good overview on Python syntax in Python on Symbian/02. Basic Python Elements (the book is about Python on Symbian, but this chapter is "generic").
Category:MeeGo Harmattan, as used in the Nokia N9, is Linux based and supports a generic version of Python. Information on using generic Python is widely available on the web. This wiki has generic Python topics in Category:Python.
Symbian has a version of Python called PySymbian. This has its own UI framework based on the underlying Symbian native UI, and allows programmers to control features like camera, messaging, Bluetooth etc. through the scripts they write. The wiki has topics on this version of Python in Category:PySymbian (a subcategory of Category:Python).
Note also that Qt also has Python bindings, provided through the PySide project. These are available on Linux platforms (including MeeGo) and Windows, but not on Symbian.