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Archived:Audiostream playback using Symbian C++

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[[Category:Audio]]Generally there are two opportunities to play back raw audio data on Symbian OS. We can use ''CMdaAudioPlayerUtility'' and ''MMdaAudioPlayerCallback'', or ''CMdaAudioOutputStream'' and ''MMdaAudioOutputStreamCallback'' classes. The former requires the whole data audio data with a valid WAVE header (in the header are the bitrate, sampling frequency and length defined), the latter opens a stream and we can write to the stream anytime. Consequently the second solution is much more memory friendly; it is preferable especially in case of longer audio data. It may be also prefered in case of remote audiostream playback (e.g. streaming audio from the internet).
+
[[Category:Audio]]Generally there are two opportunities to play back raw audio data on Symbian OS. We can use <tt>CMdaAudioPlayerUtility</tt> and <tt>MMdaAudioPlayerCallback'', or <tt>CMdaAudioOutputStream</tt> and <tt>MMdaAudioOutputStreamCallback</tt> classes. The former requires the whole data audio data with a valid WAVE header (in the header are the bitrate, sampling frequency and length defined), the latter opens a stream and we can write to the stream anytime. Consequently the second solution is much more memory friendly; it is preferable especially in case of longer audio data. It may be also prefered in case of remote audiostream playback (e.g. streaming audio from the internet).
  
 
This article deals with the second solution, also, with audiostream playback. In the first part of the article the main idea and functionality of streaming playback is introduced and the second part discusses the occurring problems on devices. According to my findings, some of these problems have never been publish before.
 
This article deals with the second solution, also, with audiostream playback. In the first part of the article the main idea and functionality of streaming playback is introduced and the second part discusses the occurring problems on devices. According to my findings, some of these problems have never been publish before.
Line 5: Line 5:
 
== The usage of CMdaAudioOutputStream and MMdaAudioPlayerCallback ==
 
== The usage of CMdaAudioOutputStream and MMdaAudioPlayerCallback ==
  
The audio playback class must be inherited from ''MMdaAudioPlayerCallback''. In this class we must reference a ''CMdaAudioOutputStream'' type object:
+
The audio playback class must be inherited from <tt>MMdaAudioPlayerCallback''. In this class we must reference a <tt>CMdaAudioOutputStream</tt> type object:
 
<code cpp>
 
<code cpp>
 
CMdaAudioOutputStream* iAudioOutputStream;
 
CMdaAudioOutputStream* iAudioOutputStream;
Line 14: Line 14:
 
PanicIfError(err);
 
PanicIfError(err);
 
</code>
 
</code>
where ''*this'' is the inherited class from ''MMdaAudioPlayerCallback''. Now we have to open the stream:
+
where <tt>*this</tt> is the inherited class from <tt>MMdaAudioPlayerCallback''. Now we have to open the stream:
 
<code cpp>
 
<code cpp>
 
TMdaAudioDataSettings iStreamSettings;
 
TMdaAudioDataSettings iStreamSettings;
Line 21: Line 21:
 
iAudioOutputStream->Open(&iStreamSettings);
 
iAudioOutputStream->Open(&iStreamSettings);
 
</code>
 
</code>
When the stream is opened, the ''MaoscOpenComplete(TInt aError)'' callback function is called, so we must implement it in our class. In this function we can start to write into the stream (''CAudiostreamPlayer'' is derived from ''MMdaAudioPlayerCallback''):
+
When the stream is opened, the <tt>MaoscOpenComplete(TInt aError)</tt> callback function is called, so we must implement it in our class. In this function we can start to write into the stream (''CAudiostreamPlayer</tt> is derived from <tt>MMdaAudioPlayerCallback''):
 
<code cpp>
 
<code cpp>
 
void CAudiostreamPlayer::MaoscOpenComplete(TInt aError)
 
void CAudiostreamPlayer::MaoscOpenComplete(TInt aError)
Line 32: Line 32:
 
}
 
}
 
</code>
 
</code>
When ''iSomeMono8khzRawAudioData'' is copied into the stream, the ''MaoscBufferCopied(TInt aError, const TDesC8& aBuffer)'' callback function is called, consequently it must also be implemented:
+
When <tt>iSomeMono8khzRawAudioData</tt> is copied into the stream, the <tt>MaoscBufferCopied(TInt aError, const TDesC8& aBuffer)</tt> callback function is called, consequently it must also be implemented:
 
<code cpp>
 
<code cpp>
 
void CAudiostreamPlayer::MaoscBufferCopied(TInt aError, const TDesC8& aBuffer)
 
void CAudiostreamPlayer::MaoscBufferCopied(TInt aError, const TDesC8& aBuffer)
Line 46: Line 46:
 
}
 
}
 
</code>
 
</code>
(Note: ''aBuffer'' points to the copied buffer.)
+
(Note: <tt>aBuffer</tt> points to the copied buffer.)
  
When there is no more audio data, or the last audio data segment has been played, and new data wasn’t written into the stream, then the ''MaoscPlayComplete(TInt aError)'' callback function is called; it is also called in case of any occuring error or if the ''CMdaAudioOutputStream::Stop()'' function was called:
+
When there is no more audio data, or the last audio data segment has been played, and new data wasn’t written into the stream, then the <tt>MaoscPlayComplete(TInt aError)</tt> callback function is called; it is also called in case of any occuring error or if the <tt>CMdaAudioOutputStream::Stop()</tt> function was called:
 
<code cpp>
 
<code cpp>
 
void CAudiostreamPlayer::MaoscPlayComplete(TInt aError)
 
void CAudiostreamPlayer::MaoscPlayComplete(TInt aError)
Line 81: Line 81:
 
===Missing MaoscPlayComplete() callback function===
 
===Missing MaoscPlayComplete() callback function===
  
The ''MaoscPlayComplete()'' callback function is never called on 2nd edition devices (have not tested it on 3rd edition devices) in case of ''KErrUnderflow'', so when we stop writing to the stream or when the speed of the audio playback is faster than the speed the buffer is written into the stream. The actual end of playback is indicated by MaoscBufferCopied() being called instead. We can check the identity of the buffer received by ''MaoscBufferCopied()'', comparing it with the buffers in the stream (e.g. to see whether it is the last buffer or not). We can still achieve ''MaoscPlayComplete()'' to be called with aError==KErrCancel, if we call the CMdaAudioOutputStream::Stop() function.
+
The <tt>MaoscPlayComplete()</tt> callback function is never called on 2nd edition devices (have not tested it on 3rd edition devices) in case of <tt>KErrUnderflow'', so when we stop writing to the stream or when the speed of the audio playback is faster than the speed the buffer is written into the stream. The actual end of playback is indicated by MaoscBufferCopied() being called instead. We can check the identity of the buffer received by <tt>MaoscBufferCopied()'', comparing it with the buffers in the stream (e.g. to see whether it is the last buffer or not). We can still achieve <tt>MaoscPlayComplete()</tt> to be called with aError==KErrCancel, if we call the CMdaAudioOutputStream::Stop() function.
  
 
===Memory leaking in MaoscPlayComplete() callback function===
 
===Memory leaking in MaoscPlayComplete() callback function===
  
The developer might like to destroy the ''CMdaAudioOutputStream*'' object in ''MaoscPlayComplet()'', when the whole audio data has been played (and playing has stopped) to free up memory. But if it is destroyed in ''MaoscPlayComplete()'', then it leads to memory leaking.
+
The developer might like to destroy the <tt>CMdaAudioOutputStream*</tt> object in <tt>MaoscPlayComplet()'', when the whole audio data has been played (and playing has stopped) to free up memory. But if it is destroyed in <tt>MaoscPlayComplete()'', then it leads to memory leaking.
  
 
===MaoscOpenComplete() never called when reopening the stream===
 
===MaoscOpenComplete() never called when reopening the stream===
  
On some 2nd edition devices (have not tested on 3rd edition devices) the ''MaoscOpenComplete()'' callback function is not called if we reopen the stream, just like when we call the ''Open()'' function more than once. To overcome the problem we must reconstruct the stream each time before opening it:
+
On some 2nd edition devices (have not tested on 3rd edition devices) the <tt>MaoscOpenComplete()</tt> callback function is not called if we reopen the stream, just like when we call the <tt>Open()</tt> function more than once. To overcome the problem we must reconstruct the stream each time before opening it:
 
<code cpp>
 
<code cpp>
 
if (iAudioOutputStream) delete iAudioOutputStream;
 
if (iAudioOutputStream) delete iAudioOutputStream;
Line 99: Line 99:
 
===Stop() causes crash if it is called in the callback functions===
 
===Stop() causes crash if it is called in the callback functions===
  
Developers may call the ''CMdaAudioOutputStream::Stop()'' function in ''MaoscBufferCopied()'' to reach ''MaoscPlayComplete()''. But on some 2nd edition devices (have not tested on 3rd edition devices) the application freezes when the ''Stop()'' function is called in the callback functions. To avoid this problem, the ''Stop()'' function should not be called directly from the callbacks. A possible solution is to use CIdle object for calling the ''Stop()'' function. With the help of ''CIdle'' the ''Stop()'' function is called only when there are no higher priority active objects running. So we should create and start the ''CIdle'' object when normally we would call the ''Stop()'' function and call the ''Stop()'' function in the CIdle object.
+
Developers may call the <tt>CMdaAudioOutputStream::Stop()</tt> function in <tt>MaoscBufferCopied()</tt> to reach <tt>MaoscPlayComplete()''. But on some 2nd edition devices (have not tested on 3rd edition devices) the application freezes when the <tt>Stop()</tt> function is called in the callback functions. To avoid this problem, the <tt>Stop()</tt> function should not be called directly from the callbacks. A possible solution is to use CIdle object for calling the <tt>Stop()</tt> function. With the help of <tt>CIdle</tt> the <tt>Stop()</tt> function is called only when there are no higher priority active objects running. So we should create and start the <tt>CIdle</tt> object when normally we would call the <tt>Stop()</tt> function and call the <tt>Stop()</tt> function in the CIdle object.
 
<code cpp>
 
<code cpp>
 
iStop = CIdle::NewL(EPriorityIdle);
 
iStop = CIdle::NewL(EPriorityIdle);
Line 119: Line 119:
 
===Memory leaking in MaoscBufferCopied() callback function===
 
===Memory leaking in MaoscBufferCopied() callback function===
  
One might like to do some extra calculations in ''MaoscBufferCopied()'' callback function (e.g. MP3 decoding, downloading from the Internet, text-to-speech conversion, etc.). In this case it is favorable to do the calculations after the last audio data segment was written into the stream. Unfortunately it causes memory leaking on 2nd edition devices (have not tested on 3rd edition devices). We can easily reproduce the problem by putting a for loop after the ''CMdaAudioOutputStream::WriteL()'' function:
+
One might like to do some extra calculations in <tt>MaoscBufferCopied()</tt> callback function (e.g. MP3 decoding, downloading from the Internet, text-to-speech conversion, etc.). In this case it is favorable to do the calculations after the last audio data segment was written into the stream. Unfortunately it causes memory leaking on 2nd edition devices (have not tested on 3rd edition devices). We can easily reproduce the problem by putting a for loop after the <tt>CMdaAudioOutputStream::WriteL()</tt> function:
 
<code cpp>
 
<code cpp>
 
void CAudiostreamPlayer::MaoscPlayComplete(TInt aError)
 
void CAudiostreamPlayer::MaoscPlayComplete(TInt aError)

Revision as of 21:06, 7 June 2007

Generally there are two opportunities to play back raw audio data on Symbian OS. We can use CMdaAudioPlayerUtility and MMdaAudioPlayerCallback, or <tt>CMdaAudioOutputStream and MMdaAudioOutputStreamCallback classes. The former requires the whole data audio data with a valid WAVE header (in the header are the bitrate, sampling frequency and length defined), the latter opens a stream and we can write to the stream anytime. Consequently the second solution is much more memory friendly; it is preferable especially in case of longer audio data. It may be also prefered in case of remote audiostream playback (e.g. streaming audio from the internet).

This article deals with the second solution, also, with audiostream playback. In the first part of the article the main idea and functionality of streaming playback is introduced and the second part discusses the occurring problems on devices. According to my findings, some of these problems have never been publish before.

Contents

The usage of CMdaAudioOutputStream and MMdaAudioPlayerCallback

The audio playback class must be inherited from MMdaAudioPlayerCallback. In this class we must reference a <tt>CMdaAudioOutputStream type object:

CMdaAudioOutputStream* iAudioOutputStream;

Then we can instantiate an object:

TRAPD(err, iAudioOutputStream = CMdaAudioOutputStream::NewL(*this););
PanicIfError(err);

where *this is the inherited class from MMdaAudioPlayerCallback. Now we have to open the stream:

TMdaAudioDataSettings iStreamSettings;
iChannels = TMdaAudioDataSettings::EChannelsMono;
iSampleRate = TMdaAudioDataSettings::ESampleRate8000Hz;
iAudioOutputStream->Open(&iStreamSettings);

When the stream is opened, the <tt>MaoscOpenComplete(TInt aError) callback function is called, so we must implement it in our class. In this function we can start to write into the stream (CAudiostreamPlayer</tt> is derived from MMdaAudioPlayerCallback):

void CAudiostreamPlayer::MaoscOpenComplete(TInt aError)
{
if (aError == KErrNone)
{
// the stream is opened
iAudioOutputStream->WriteL(iSomeMono8khzRawAudioData);
}
}

When <tt>iSomeMono8khzRawAudioData is copied into the stream, the MaoscBufferCopied(TInt aError, const TDesC8& aBuffer) callback function is called, consequently it must also be implemented:

void CAudiostreamPlayer::MaoscBufferCopied(TInt aError, const TDesC8& aBuffer)
{
if (aError==KErrNone)
{
// if there is more data, then write it into the stream
if (iMoreData==ETrue)
{
iAudioOutputStream->WriteL(iSomeMono8khzRawAudioData);
}
}
}

(Note: aBuffer points to the copied buffer.)

When there is no more audio data, or the last audio data segment has been played, and new data wasn’t written into the stream, then the MaoscPlayComplete(TInt aError) callback function is called; it is also called in case of any occuring error or if the CMdaAudioOutputStream::Stop() function was called:

void CAudiostreamPlayer::MaoscPlayComplete(TInt aError)
{
if (aError==KErrUnderflow)
{
if (iMoreData==ETrue)
{
iAudioOutputStream->WriteL(iSomeMono8khzRawAudioData);
}
else
{
// done
}
}
else if (aError==KErrCancel)
{
// stopped
}
}

We can stop playing anytime by calling:

iAudioOutputStream->Stop();

More information on functions and error codes can be found in the Symbian SDK documentation.

Device specific errors

The audiostream playback as described above works perfectly on the emulator, but unfortunaltey it does not work so on the devices. There are several major issues that are present on some devices. Developers must pay attention to these issues to successfully implement audiostream playback in their application. Most of these issues can be solved.

Missing MaoscPlayComplete() callback function

The MaoscPlayComplete() callback function is never called on 2nd edition devices (have not tested it on 3rd edition devices) in case of KErrUnderflow, so when we stop writing to the stream or when the speed of the audio playback is faster than the speed the buffer is written into the stream. The actual end of playback is indicated by MaoscBufferCopied() being called instead. We can check the identity of the buffer received by <tt>MaoscBufferCopied(), comparing it with the buffers in the stream (e.g. to see whether it is the last buffer or not). We can still achieve <tt>MaoscPlayComplete() to be called with aError==KErrCancel, if we call the CMdaAudioOutputStream::Stop() function.

Memory leaking in MaoscPlayComplete() callback function

The developer might like to destroy the CMdaAudioOutputStream* object in MaoscPlayComplet(), when the whole audio data has been played (and playing has stopped) to free up memory. But if it is destroyed in <tt>MaoscPlayComplete(), then it leads to memory leaking.

MaoscOpenComplete() never called when reopening the stream

On some 2nd edition devices (have not tested on 3rd edition devices) the <tt>MaoscOpenComplete() callback function is not called if we reopen the stream, just like when we call the Open() function more than once. To overcome the problem we must reconstruct the stream each time before opening it:

if (iAudioOutputStream) delete iAudioOutputStream;
iAudioOutputStream = NULL; // In case the following NewL leaves
TRAPD(err, iAudioOutputStream = CMdaAudioOutputStream::NewL(*this););
PanicIfError(err);

Stop() causes crash if it is called in the callback functions

Developers may call the CMdaAudioOutputStream::Stop() function in MaoscBufferCopied() to reach MaoscPlayComplete(). But on some 2nd edition devices (have not tested on 3rd edition devices) the application freezes when the <tt>Stop() function is called in the callback functions. To avoid this problem, the Stop() function should not be called directly from the callbacks. A possible solution is to use CIdle object for calling the Stop() function. With the help of CIdle the Stop() function is called only when there are no higher priority active objects running. So we should create and start the CIdle object when normally we would call the Stop() function and call the Stop() function in the CIdle object.

iStop = CIdle::NewL(EPriorityIdle);
iStop->Start(TCallBack(BackgroundStop, this));
TInt CAudiostreamPlayer::BackgroundStop(TAny *aStream)
{
return ((CAudiostreamPlayer*)aStream)->Stop();
}
 
TBool CAudiostreamPlayer::Stop()
{
iAudioOutputStream->Stop();
return EFalse;
}

Memory leaking in MaoscBufferCopied() callback function

One might like to do some extra calculations in MaoscBufferCopied() callback function (e.g. MP3 decoding, downloading from the Internet, text-to-speech conversion, etc.). In this case it is favorable to do the calculations after the last audio data segment was written into the stream. Unfortunately it causes memory leaking on 2nd edition devices (have not tested on 3rd edition devices). We can easily reproduce the problem by putting a for loop after the CMdaAudioOutputStream::WriteL() function:

void CAudiostreamPlayer::MaoscPlayComplete(TInt aError)
{
if (aError==KErrUnderflow)
{
if (iMoreData==ETrue)
{
iAudioOutputStream->WriteL(iSomeMono8khzRawAudioData);
for (TInt k=0; k<100000; k++)
{
k++;
for (TInt l=0; l<100; l++)
{
k++;
}
k-=101;
}
 
}
else
{
// done
}
}
else if (aError==KErrCancel)
{
// stopped
}
}

Unfortunately this issue has not been solved yet. Any idea and suggestion is welcome.

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